A Hymn For The New Year

When I wrote “Sing To The World,” I did not envision that it would one day become my personal “Greetings to the New Year” song.

But for all the times I’ve sung this song – this hymn – at this time of year, I’ve never felt these hopes and wishes for us all as deeply or as desperately as I do now.

Here’s to 2021!

“Sing To The World” – Words & Music (1996), Guitar & Vocals (2021) by Eric Sinclair

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The Ballad of “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing”

Ballad: “A poem or song narrating a story in short stanzas, or verses.”

Prelude

I can hear you.

“Christmas is over!”

However, according to the calendar of the festive Christian season known as Twelvetide, today is the Fourth Day of Christmas!

Therefore, I feel completely justified in putting up this post today and not just boxing it up with the twinkle lights until next year.

So here’s the story of six people – and one insurance company – and how they brought this song into the world.

Verse 1

Charles Wesley (1707-1788) was an English minister.

He also wrote hymns – just the words, not the music – and eventually compiled over 6000 of these texts.

In 1739, Charles and his older brother John put together a collection of these verses and published it under the title Hymns and Sacred Poems.

One of the entries in their book was called “Hymn for Christmas-Day.”

This is how it appeared in the fourth edition of Hymns and Sacred Poems, published in 1743.

Charles envisioned that “Hymn for Christmas-Day” would be sung with music that was slow and solemn. The tune he had in mind was the same one he liked for another piece found in Hymns and Sacred Poems: “Hymn for Easter-Day.”

“Hymn for Easter-Day” is now widely known as “Christ the Lord Is Risen Today.” It is most commonly sung with an anonymously composed tune called “The Resurrection,” published in 1708.

Verse 2

George Whitefield (1714-1770) was an English preacher.

In 1732, young George entered Pembroke College at the University of Oxford where he first met and became friends with the Wesley brothers.

Though George wrote several hymns of his own over the course of his career, he was inspired one day to make a few changes to Charles’ “Hymn for Christmas-Day.”

The most significant change George made was to Charles’ opening lines.

“Hark how all the Welkin rings Glory to the King of Kings” became…

“Hark! the Herald Angels sing Glory to the new-born King!”

In 1753, George published his new version of “Hymn for Christmas-Day” – now titled “HYMN XXXI” – in a book: A Collection of Hymns for Social Worship: More Particularly Designed for Use of the Tabernacle Congregation.

This image is from an edition released in 1758.

Verse 3

Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809-1847) was a German musician and composer.

In 1840, Felix composed a cantata to be performed at a summer festival in Leipzig celebrating the 400th anniversary of the invention of the printing press.

Festgesang zur Eröffnung der am ersten Tage der vierten Säcularfeier der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst – also known as the Gutenberg Cantata – was originally scored for men’s chorus, two brass orchestras and tympani. The text was by Adolf Eduard Proelss.

The second song or movement in the cantata – “No. II. Lied.” – begins with the words: “Vaterland, in deinen Gauen…”

Here’s a look from an 1840 first edition copy of the piano-vocal score of Festgesang

Apparently, Mendelssohn’s Gutenberg Cantata has never been recorded.

The only recording available of “No. II. Lied.” – aka “Vaterland, In Deinen Gauen” – is this transcription/arrangement for organ by Lyle Neff from 2011.

Interlude

On April 30, 1843, Felix Mendelssohn wrote a letter to his English publisher, Mr. E. Buxton regarding a translation of Festgesang… by a Mr. Bartholomew.

Felix wrote: “I think there ought to be other words [than those written by Mr. Bartholomew] to No.2, the ‘Lied.’ If the right ones are hit at, I am sure that the piece will be liked very much by the singers and the hearers, but it will never do to sacred words.”

He concludes: “The words must express something gay and popular, as the music tries to do it.”

Verse 4

William H. Cummings (1831-1915) was an English musician.

In 1847, William was a singer in the chorus at the London premiere of Felix Mendelssohn’s oratorio Elijah, conducted by Mendelssohn himself.

William went on to be a big fan of Mendelssohn’s work, eagerly purchasing everything he composed as soon as it was published.

In 1855, while serving as the organist of Waltham Abbey in Essex, England, William discovered that the words of Hymn for Christmas-Day/HYMN XXXI perfectly meshed with the tune from “No. 2. Lied/Vaterland, In Deinen Gauen.”

“Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” was born.

The first publication occurred on December 24, 1855 and the first edition – “adapted and arranged by William H. Cummings” – was deposited at the British Museum on December 2, 1856.

Verse 5

Richard R. Chope (1830-1928) was an English clergyman.

In 1857, while serving as the Curate of Stapleton, Richard compiled and published The Congregational Hymn & Tune Book.

Richard’s book contains – under the title “Christmas – Hymn 18” – possibly the earliest printing of “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing.”

Here’s how it looked in an edition published in 1859.

Verse 6

When I was a kid, my main source for the music to “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” was a small booklet of Christmas carols published by the John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company of Boston, Massachusetts.

The copy of Christmas Carols that I still have has a copyright of 1960 inside the front cover and a printing date (“Litho. In U.S.A.”) of 1967 on the back cover.

This truly pocket-size pamphlet (It measures 4 1/8″ by 6″) presents fourteen of the most classic carols in beautiful 4-part choral arrangements with at least three verses for each. “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” is on page 8.

(I wonder who came up with that third verse?!)

Verse 7

John Fahey (1939-2001) was an American finger-style guitarist.

In 1968, John recorded and released an album entitled The New Possibility: John Fahey’s Guitar Soli Christmas Album.

This gorgeous and ground-breaking collection contains John’s syncopated fingerpicked instrumental acoustic guitar arrangements of 14 seasonal songs and carols.

“Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” is on track 3 in a medley with “O Come All Ye Faithful.”

Verse 8

I don’t recall when I purchased my copy of the LP, but my initial listenings to John Fahey’s performances on The New Possibility profoundly affected my conception of how a song could be played on an acoustic guitar.

In the mid-1980’s I wrote out a melody, chords & words transcription of “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” and started the annual process of working out a Fahey-inspired fingerpicked arrangement of my own.

Finally, in December, 2018, I recorded a brief one-verse statement of my arrangement of “Hark!…” to share in a holiday text message with my family.

Here it is.

“Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” – arranged & performed by Eric Sinclair

I consider that a work in progress.

Postlude

Giving credit where credit was due was obviously not the standard operating procedure among the persons that participated in the more-than-a-century long story of how “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” came to be.

George Whitefield did not credit Charles Wesley when he published “HYMN XXXI.”

William H. Cummings credited Felix Mendelssohn but did not give credit to Wesley or Whitefield when he published his adaptation and arrangement of “Hark! The Hearld Angels Sing.”

Richard R. Chope credited Mendelssohn but did not give credit to Wesley, Whitefield or Cummings when he published “Christmas – Hymn 18.”

But, when The John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company published “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” in their little Christmas Carols pamphlet, they gave full credit to Charles Wesley for his words, F. Mendelssohn for his music and W.H. Cummings for his arrangement.

Nice.

Liner Notes

The information used in the writing of this post was gathered from the following sources:

“‘Hark! The Herald Angels Sing’: An Illustrated History” by Cait Miller – from In The Muse: The Performing Arts Blog of The Library of Congress, December 20, 2016.

“The Book of World Famous Music: Classical, Popular and Folk” – Fifth Edition, Revised and Enlarged (2000) by James J. Fuld.

“Hark! The Herald Angels Sing” – article author unknown, The Musical Times #38, December 1, 1897.

The Wikipedia pages for Charles Wesley, George Whitefield, William H. Cummings, “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing,” Felix Mendelssohn, “Festgesang” and “Christ The Lord Is Risen Today.”

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Sparklers: “Buffalo” by John Renbourn

This is the seventh installment of this category featuring recordings of outstanding performances by noteworthy guitarists – or – outstanding guitarists giving noteworthy performances.

So, Ladies and Gentlemen! Let me introduce to you…

“Buffalo” by John Renbourn.

Give a listen. (You’ll be glad you did!)

John Renbourn recorded “Buffalo” in 1966, using his recently purchased Gibson J-50 acoustic guitar. (Most likely the guitar John is playing in the picture above.)

The piece was released on his second solo album Another Monday on Transatlantic Records.

John Renbourn was born on August 8, 1944 in Marylebone, London, England. He got his first guitar at age 13. His recording career started in 1965 with the release of his first album, John Renbourn. He passed away on March 26, 2015 at his home in Harwick, Scotland.

I posted a tribute to John Renbourn on April 12, 2015. (Here’s the link, if you’re interested.)

At the time, the studio recording of “Buffalo” was not available on YouTube. (I did, however, find a very cool video of John teaching “Buffalo” which is included in that post.)

If you enjoyed “Buffalo,” John Renbourn left an extensive legacy of equally brilliant recordings as a solo artist and with the British Folk-Rock group, Pentangle. They are well worth searching out!

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“Blue Friday”

I found this recording in the Voice Memos app on my phone back in early June when I was looking for something else.

What I think of as an “audio snapshot,” it was dated February 22, 2019 and titled “Blue Friday.” Check it out!

“Blue Friday” (Original)

“Not bad,” I thought after giving a listen, “but it could use a B section.”

So, having some time, I picked up the sultry siren that had been occupying the guitar stand next to my desk since March… my Fender “Custom 90’s” Telecaster…

… and went to work.

The new B section was completed on June 12, 2020 and pencil sketched on pg. 18 of Volume 4 of my Passantino Music Papers notebooks.

When I could play the piece well enough to attempt an “official” recording, I decided to use my Tele for the voice of “Blue Friday.” This was a major break – Ooo! – with my long-standing tradition of using an acoustic guitar for documenting my instrumentals.

But I’m very glad that I did!

Listen for yourself.

“Blue Friday” (Complete)

Finally, in July, I wrote out a complete Guitar Tablature transcription of “Blue Friday,” thinking that maybe someday another guitar player might want to try their hand at my little composition…

…or, that I would eventually write about “Blue Friday” on sixstrstories.

Guess I was half right, so far.

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This Historic Day In Music: John Lennon

Strawberry Fields, Central Park, New York – September 29, 2019

Like every other obsessed fan of The Beatles that I know, I have accumulated a sizable collection of books about The Beatles.

One of those books is Beatlesongs by William J. Dowlding.

The front cover of this 1989 Fireside paperback proclaims that its pages contain: “Firsthand quotes, little-known facts and details about the production of each song/album, including: where song ideas came from, who contributed how much to each song… and much more!”

The back cover states that “drawing together information from sources that include interviews, insider accounts, magazines, and news wire services,” Beatlesongs has “a complete profile of every Beatles song ever written.” The bibliography, for instance, lists forty books.

Mr. Dowlding then, in each song’s profile, organized the information he gathered under headings: Chart Action, Authorship, Recorded, Instrumentation, Miscellaneous, Comments By Beatles and Comments By Others.

(Under that last heading, I now know that “Albert Gore, politician, and wife Tipper, played ‘All You Need Is Love’ as their wedding recessional.”)

Authorship is the one that has fascinated me the most.

The reason for this heading is the not-so-obvious fact that, even though every song they wrote while they were in The Beatles was published under both of their names, John Lennon and Paul McCartney did not actually co-write all of those songs.

Some Beatles’ songs are “John songs” and some are “Paul songs.”

Mr. Dowlding created a full/partial credit system to estimate the division of songwriting labor for each “Lennon & McCartney” song.

For example…

The Authorship of “Eight Days A Week” is tabulated as: McCartney (.9) and Lennon (.1).

“She Loves You” is Lennon (.5) and McCartney (.5).

“Let It Be” is McCartney (1.00).

From the many hours that I have spent over the years pouring through the pages of Beatlesongs (and other more recently published sources), I have discovered that the vast majority of the Beatles’ songs I have listened to the most often; the songs I have loved so much that I learned to play them, sing them and perform them… have been “John songs” – Authorship: Lennon (1.00).

They have been…

“Nowhere Man”

“You’ve Got To Hide Your Love Away”

“You Can’t Do That”

“It Won’t Be Long”

“I Call Your Name”

“All You Need Is Love”

“Come Together”

…to name a few.

As clichéd as it may be, it is still so true: my life has been incalculably enriched by the songs of John Lennon.

I therefore could not let this day go by – October 9, 2020: the 80th anniversary of the day that John Winston Lennon was born – without paying tribute to him – without in some small way again saying “Thank you, so very much” – here on sixstrstories.

So, to wrap things up, what “John song” should we listen to?

How about one of the best!

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Finding Covers – “Boots of Spanish Leather”

I awoke this morning with a song in my head.

The song was “Boots of Spanish Leather” by Bob Dylan.

But Bob wasn’t singing it.

Martin Simpson was.

Martin Simpson is the exceedingly accomplished British Folk musician rightfully revered as one of the best acoustic guitarists on the planet.

I first heard Martin Simpson sing and play “Boots of Spanish Leather” in the late 1990s.

Back then, Martin would travel each December to southeastern New Hampshire to join local fingerpicking phenom Ed Gerhard for a Christmas Guitar Concert held in the sanctuary of a local church.

My daughter and I attended many of these truly magical evenings and the instrumentals and songs – often including “Boots of Spanish Leather” – that Martin presented ranked high among our favorites year after year.

Martin released a live recording of his rendition of “Boots of Spanish Leather” in 1999 on his Bootleg USA album. He contributed a studio recording to the 2001 Red House Records compilation A Nod To Bob: An Artists Tribute to Bob Dylan on His Sixtieth Birthday.

That’s the performance I know and love and was the music that started my day.

I heartily recommend that you take a few minutes and listen to this.

Martin was accompanied on that track by bass guitarist Doug Robinson and cellist Barry Phillips.

In the liner notes to the A Nod To Bob CD, Martin writes: “I think that no one took me further than Dylan, or showed me more possibilities. I’m still exploring the roads and sidewalks, dare I say it following the signs. Some of those songs feel like mine now. Thank you, we all owe you so much.”

I think it is safe to say that Martin Simpson definitely succeeded in making “Boots of Spanish Leather” his own.

Martin Simpson was born on May 5, 1953 in Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire, England. He got his first guitar at age twelve, gave his first paid performance at fourteen and recorded his first solo album – “Golden Vanity” – in 1976 at the age of twenty-two. His 21st solo album – “Rooted” – was released in 2019.

The BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards honored Martin as the Instrumentalist of the Year in 2002, Musician of the Year in 2004 and having the Best Album – “Prodigal Son” – in 2008.

“Boots of Spanish Leather” originally appeared on Bob Dylan’s third album, The Times They Are A-Changin’, in 1964.

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Louis Armstrong & His Hot Five + One

The legendary Louis Armstrong & His Hot Five…

  • Edward “Kid” Ory – Trombone
  • Louis Armstrong – Cornet & Vocals
  • Johnny Dodds – Clarinet
  • Lil Hardin Armstrong – Piano
  • Johnny St. Cyr – 6-String Banjo

…made their first recordings – for OKeh Records, in Chicago, IL – on November 12, 1925.

This incalculably influential New Orleans Jazz quintet gathered to make their last recordings on December 13, 1927, again for OKeh and in Chicago.

However, on this day, the Hot Five added an equally hot sixth: Blues guitarist and fellow OKeh recording artist Lonnie Johnson.

Two tracks were cut at this December 13 session: “Hotter Than That,” a Lil Hardin Armstrong composition and “Savoy Blues” by Edward Ory.

In his liner notes to the Columbia/Legacy CD Louis Armstrong: The Complete Hot Five And Hot Seven Recordings, Volume 3, Gary Giddens explains that “Hotter Than That” is “based on a strain of the New Orleans anthem ‘Tiger Rag.'”

He quite accurately describes the recording as being “a succession of marvels.”

My favorite part of this joyous performance comes at 1:55 when the scat-singing Armstrong and the acoustic 12-string-picking Johnson begin trading licks in a dazzling bit of call-and-response improvisation.

Give a listen for yourself!

 

In the same liner notes, Mr. Giddens offers this assessment of “Savoy Blues.”

“It begins with a zany oom-pah figure, accenting first and third beats and suggesting a countryish air emphasized by Louis’s opening solo and the commiserating ensemble. Then Johnson plays a four-bar transition, changing the time to a jazzy four and triggering an episode by the two guitarists that has the effect of crossing a period blues record with a cutting edge jazz disc.”

Whew! Guess you better check it out! (That four-bar transition starts at :53.)

 

“Hotter Than That” b/w “Savoy Blues” by Louis Armstrong & His Hot Five was released in 1928 by OKeh Records on a 10-inch, 78 rpm disc, #8535. On the record label, “Hotter Than That” was identified as being a “Fox Trot.”

As my motto says…”Good music doesn’t get old.”

Do you agree?

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Light Amidst Dark – “Six Feet Apart”

My son turned me on to this song by Luke Combs in August.

He asked if I could teach him how to play it and, over the course of a couple of Sunday afternoon FaceTime guitar lessons, I did.

“Six Feet Apart” was written – two verses and a chorus – by Luke Combs, Brent Cobb and Robert Snyder on April 14, 2020. Their songwriting session had been scheduled before the start of the pandemic.

Luke debuted the song during a live-stream at-home performance on April 15.

Give a listen.

 

Talk about hot off the presses!

Luke, Brent and Robert captured so much of what so many of us have been feeling for all these months in a perfectly charming package of melody, lyrics and harmony. And Luke’s no-frills performance delivers the goods with warmth, sincerity and soul.

My favorite line comes at the end of the second verse. I’m pretty sure that, even after “this thing” is over, I will also still “probably over-wash my hands.”

Luke Combs released a full-band rendition of “Six Feet Apart”- recorded in a studio with everyone wearing masks and sitting in separate rooms – on May 1, 2020.

P.S.: If you want to try playing “Six Feet Apart” for yourself (as I’ve been doing)…

  • Hint #1: That sweet Gibson acoustic Luke’s playing is tuned down one half-step.
  • Hint #2: Fingering chords in the Key of G, Luke never uses a regular D major chord.

P.S.S.: Thanks, Tom.

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This Historic Day In Music: Buddy Holly

If asked, I could easily put together a list of my ten favorite Buddy Holly songs.

In no particular order…

  • “That’ll Be The Day”
  • “Not Fade Away”
  • “Oh Boy!”
  • “Everyday”
  • “Word Of Love”
  • “Peggy Sue”
  • “Maybe Baby”
  • “Well…All Right”
  • “It’s So Easy”
  • “True Love Ways”

But if I had to pick just one to put in this post, I’d have to go with: “Well…All Right.”

 

“Well…All Right” was recorded on February 12, 1958 at the Norman Petty Recording Studio in Clovis, New Mexico. Buddy sings and plays acoustic guitar and is accompanied by Joe B. Maudlin on bass and Jerry Allison on cymbals. Buddy, Joe, Jerry and Norman Petty – who produced the recording – are all given songwriting credit.

“Well…All Right” was released by Coral Records on November 5, 1958. It was the B-side of the 45-rpm single on which the A-side was “Heartbeat.”

*   *   *   *   *

Buddy Holly was born Charles Hardin Holley on September 7, 1936 in Lubbock, Texas.

He made his first professional recordings for Decca Records in Nashville, Tennessee on January 26, 1956.

He recorded his first and biggest hit – “That’ll Be The Day” – on February 25, 1957 at the Norman Petty Recording Studio in Clovis, New Mexico.

Over the very short course of his career, Buddy Holly – songwriter, singer, guitarist, performer & recording artist – produced one of the most important and influential bodies of work in the history of Popular Music.

Buddy Holly died on February 3, 1959 in Clear Lake, Iowa. He was 22 years old.

What Buddy Holly song would you have picked?

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This Historic Day In Music: The Last Hard Day’s Night

The Day: Monday, August 29, 1966

The Location: San Francisco, California, USA

The Venue: Candlestick Park (Opened: 1960, Demolished: 2015)

The Event: A Beatles’ Concert

 

 

The Significance: The Beatles’ Final Public Performance 

Members of The Beatles:

  • George Harrison – Guitar & Vocals
  • John Lennon – Guitar & Vocals
  • Paul McCartney – Bass Guitar & Vocals
  • Ringo Starr – Drums & Vocals

The Beatles’ Road Crew: Mal Evans

Concert Promotion: Tempo Productions

Poster Design: Wes Wilson

Concert Sound: McCone Audio-Visual; Mort Feld, sound mixer.

Number of Microphones Used On Stage: Five (for vocals only)

Official Photographer: Jim Marshall (Coined the phrase: “The Last Hard Day’s Night.”)

Catering: Simpson’s Catering

Special Guests: Joan Baez & Mimi Fariña

Opening Acts (In order of appearance):

  • The Remains
  • Bobby Hebb (accompanied by The Remains)
  • The Cyrkle
  • The Ronettes – with Elaine Mayes filling in for Ronnie Spector (accompanied by The Remains)

Master of Ceremonies: Gene Nelson, disc jockey at KYA 1260 AM.

Ticket Prices: $4.50, $5.50, $6.50.

Number of tickets available: ~30,000

Number of tickets sold: 25,000

The Beatles’ Take: $84,500

Weather: Partly cloudy; Temperature: 50-58º F; Gusty winds: 10-20 mph.

Gates Open: 6:30 pm

Concert Start Time: 8:00 pm

Time of The Beatles’ Performance: 9:27 – 10:00 pm

Set List (All songs by John Lennon & Paul McCartney, unless otherwise noted):

  • “Rock & Roll Music” (Chuck Berry)
  • “She’s A Woman”
  • “If I Needed Someone” (George Harrison)
  • “Day Tripper”
  • “Baby’s In Black”
  • “I Feel Fine”
  • “Yesterday”
  • “I Wanna Be Your Man”
  • “Nowhere Man”
  • “Paperback Writer”
  • “Long Tall Sally” (Richard Blackwell, Enotris Johnson & Richard Penniman)

Instruments & Equipment Used By The Beatles:

George Harrison:

  • Epiphone Casino ES-230TD Electric Guitar (with Bigsby Vibrato Arm/Tailpiece and pickguard removed)
  • Rickenbacker 1965 360-12 12-String Electric Guitar (w/capo at the 7th fret)

John Lennon:

  • Epiphone Casino ES-230TD Electric Guitar

Paul McCartney:

  • Hofner 1963 500/1 “Violin” Electric Bass Guitar (with pickguard removed)

Ringo Starr:

  • Ludwig 4-Piece Drum Set (finished in Black Oyster Pearl) with a 22-inch bass drum, a 20-inch ride cymbal, 18-inch splash cymbal and 14-inch hi-hat.

Instrument Amplification:

  • American-made Vox 120-watt Solid State Super Beatle Amplifiers. (There were 7 of these amps on stage and they were used by all of the groups in the show.)

Concert Recording: Done by Tony Barrow, the Beatles’ press officer, on a portable cassette tape recorder with a hand held microphone; at the request of Paul McCartney.

And here it is!

 

Immediate Post-Concert Transportation for The Beatles: an Armored Vehicle from the Loomis Armored Car Service with an escort of eleven San Francisco Motorcycle Police Officers.

A Review: Under the headline, Beatles Strike Out At The Ballpark, Philip Elwood wrote in the San Francisco Examiner:

“The whole evening’s production was an expensive and thoroughly synchronized bit of highly commercial machinery. Each of the preliminary throw-away acts did their stint to indifferent crowd response, and soaked up the minutes until The Beatles appeared. Then came the screams…”

Sources of Information:

  • Tomorrow Never Knows: The Beatles’ Last Concert by Eric Lefcowitz, with photos by Jim Marshall. Published in 1987 by Terra Firma Books.
  • Beatles Gear: All The Fab Four’s Instruments, From Stage To Studio by Andy Babiuk. Published in 2001 by Backbeat Books.
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